Machine learning helps rewrites Earth’s history + More effective lie-detection method

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Machine Learning Helps Rewrite Earth’s History

EXCERPTS: . . . Industry leader IBM defines machine learning as “a branch of artificial intelligence (AI) focused on building applications that learn from data and improve their accuracy over time without being programmed to do so.” These applications, called algorithms, are “'trained' to find patterns and features in massive amounts of data in order to make decisions and predictions based on new data.” For this study, the researchers’ algorithm analyzed over one million fossils from a public database, covering over 200,000 species, to track how extinctions, and subsequent life, occurred.

[...] Rewriting history. In the conventional model, mass extinctions are part of a process called “creative destruction.” Many new species then emerge in a burst called a “radiation.” One of the most well-known was the rise of mammals after dinosaurs disappeared during the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction.

What the researchers found, however, was that “comparable mass radiations and extinctions were only rarely coupled in time, refuting the idea of a causal relationship between them.” In fact, the researchers found what they call “destructive creation” -- evidence that radiations may themselves cause major changes in the ecosystem. The rate of species turnover-- how long it takes before the majority of species have been replaced by new ones -- sped up with both mass extinctions and mass radiations.

The scientists noted that the Quaternary period, which began 6 million years ago and continues today, has already experienced massive changes in climate as ice ages begin and end. Now, a so-called Sixth Extinction, “mainly caused by human activity including hunting and land-use changes caused by the expansion of agriculture,” is “eroding biodiversity that was already disrupted.”

[...] Why does this matter? Reason #1. Biodiversity plays an important but underappreciated role in medicine [...] Reason #2 ... climate change can accelerate extinctions many times over. .... The ecosystem has so far been capable of self-correcting after mass extinctions and radiations, but the time scale this occurs in is staggering. ... “the authors suggest it will take at least 8 million years for it to revert to the long term average of 19 million years.”

The Take Home. Environmental protection movements have gained steam in the last couple decades, but few people appreciate the toll extinctions can take on medical advancement. The new findings are a sobering reminder that the effects of climate change and man-made extinctions could be even longer-lasting and more difficult to reverse than we think... (MORE - details)

Bad news for liars: An ethical & effective lie-detection method discovered

INTRO: Most people lie occasionally. The lies are often trivial and essentially inconsequential – such as pretending to like a tasteless gift. But in other contexts, deception is more serious and can have harmful effects on criminal justice. From a societal perspective, such lying is better detected than ignored and tolerated.

Unfortunately, it is difficult to detect lies accurately. Lie detectors, such as polygraphs, which work by measuring the level of anxiety in a subject while they answer questions, are considered “theoretically weak” and of dubious reliability. This is because, as any traveler who has been questioned by customs officials knows, it’s possible to be anxious without being guilty.

We have developed a new approach to spot liars based on interviewing technique and psychological manipulation, with results just published in the Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition.

Our technique is part of a new generation of cognitive-based lie-detection methods that are being increasingly researched and developed. These approaches postulate that the mental and strategic processes adopted by truth-tellers during interviews differ significantly from those of liars. By using specific techniques, these differences can be amplified and detected... (MORE)
Zinjanthropos Online
Watched police interrogations and when there’s more than one perp there’s a tendency for the blame to be shifted around. Once the stories change you know someone’s lying. Like I’ve always said, it’s like the jails are full of innocent people.

I’ve watched how Judge Judy does it. She reads their statements then asks questions to see if plaintiff or defendant slip up. Lies are often hard to remember especially when a significant amount of time has elapsed.
Zinjanthropos Online
Remember something called Benford's Law used to detect fraud in certain instances. Here's a short article on the recent US presidential election.

I wonder if it could be used to figure out the difference between AI and a real person in the future or if AI is on the level? Smile  It is used to detect computer fraud, especially imaging, can't remember exactly what its called when they make videos look like someone else is in it but apparently that's an easy one for Benford's Law.

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