Terraforming Mars in 3 simple steps + Hot ice on giants + Volcanic black holes?

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Volcanic memories: black holes give shape to bubbles, rings and "intergalactic smoke" filaments

Why do Uranus and Neptune have magnetic fields? Hot ice!

EXCERPTS: . . . In chemistry, ice comes in many different forms. [...] at extremely high temperatures and pressures, those crystal lattices can form such that the hydrogen atoms in the water can move freely throughout the lattice. Since hydrogen atoms are charged, this is the equivalent of transferring an electrical charge throughout the lattice structure. In other words, if created in the right conditions, ice can be electrically conductive.

Known as “superionic ice,” this unique form of ice has been the focus of research for decades [...] Scientists have long thought that fluid layers at relatively shallow depths in their atmospheres caused the ice giant’s unique magnetic fields ... but the idea of superionic ice could upend that theory.  ... While the conditions are suitable for the formation of superionic ice on the ice giants, and it seems to be able to generate the magnetic fields seen around the planets, there is still a lot of work to do to prove that superionic ice is actually the cause of these fields... (MORE - missing details)

Terraforming Mars in 3 simple steps

EXCERPTS (Sabine Hossenfelder): . . . Therefore, before we try to create an atmosphere on Mars we first have to create a magnetic field because otherwise the atmosphere would just be wiped away again. How do you create a magnetic field for a planet? Well, physicists have understood magnetic fields two centuries ago and it’s really straight-forward. In a paper that was just published in April in the International Journal of Astrobiology, two physicists explain that all you have to do put a superconducting wire around Mars...

[...] With the magnetic field in place, we can move to step 2 of terraforming Mars, creating an atmosphere. This can be done by releasing the remaining carbon dioxide that’s stored in frozen caps on the poles and in the rocks...

[...] step 3 of terraforming Mars is converting carbon-dioxide to di-oxide. Only thing we need to do for this is to grow a sufficient amount of plants. There’s the issue that plants tend to not flourish at minus fifty degrees, but that’s easy to fix with a little genetic engineering...

[...] Ok, so I admit that the last bit with the plants was a tiny bit sketchy. But there might be a better way to do it. In July 2019 researchers from JPL, Harvard and Edinburgh University published a paper in Nature in which they proposed to cover patches of Mars with a thin layer of aerogel... (MORE - missing details)


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