**Jun 4, 2021 03:43 PM**

**Ostronomos**
It was in the 1930s that Szilard and other Physicists discovered that nuclear fusion, as opposed to fission, proved to be the sun's power source. Because of the complex interplay of forces, when two nuclei fuse to form a heavier one it gives off energy. Similar to fission except it's the opposite.

My question: can energy be produced from literally nothing?

I realize that the Joint European Torus (JET) produces conditions on earth for nuclear fusion to occur but is there a source of energy with never-ending power that can be found in the fabric of the universe itself? What of pair production and annihilation?

The Wikipedia article on Gibbs Free energy explains this as follows:

In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (or Gibbs energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure. The Gibbs free energy (Δ G = Δ H − T Δ S {\displaystyle \Delta G=\Delta H-T\Delta S} , measured in joules in SI) is the maximum amount of non-expansion work that can be extracted from a thermodynamically closed system (one that can exchange heat and work with its surroundings, but not matter). This maximum can be attained only in a completely reversible process. When a system transforms reversibly from an initial state to a final state, the decrease in Gibbs free energy equals the work done by the system to its surroundings, minus the work of the pressure forces.[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibbs_free_energy

Thoughts?

My question: can energy be produced from literally nothing?

I realize that the Joint European Torus (JET) produces conditions on earth for nuclear fusion to occur but is there a source of energy with never-ending power that can be found in the fabric of the universe itself? What of pair production and annihilation?

The Wikipedia article on Gibbs Free energy explains this as follows:

In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (or Gibbs energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure. The Gibbs free energy (Δ G = Δ H − T Δ S {\displaystyle \Delta G=\Delta H-T\Delta S} , measured in joules in SI) is the maximum amount of non-expansion work that can be extracted from a thermodynamically closed system (one that can exchange heat and work with its surroundings, but not matter). This maximum can be attained only in a completely reversible process. When a system transforms reversibly from an initial state to a final state, the decrease in Gibbs free energy equals the work done by the system to its surroundings, minus the work of the pressure forces.[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibbs_free_energy

Thoughts?