Slipping through a wormhole inside a black hole

There are countless obstacles to our technological advancement which prevents successful travel towards the singularity of a Black Hole. Whereby the central point at which gravity is exceedingly powerful called the singularity, information carried by light cannot escape its impossible grip. It is there that the prospect of entering an alternate universe exists. In which case the opening of a wormhole by sufficiently advanced technology remains open to possibility. And since reality is closed, our universe was initially a black hole in an older universe through which information cannot escape. Information can be both physical and mental.
Historical background of how science fiction coaxed Kip Thorne to duty...

Quote:The interstellar contributions of Kip Thorne, the man Carl Sagan contacted for physics advice: “Sorry to bother you, Kip,” he said. “But I’m just finishing a novel about the human race’s first contact with an extra-terrestrial civilisation, and I’m worried. I want the science to be as accurate as possible, and I’m afraid I may have got some of the gravitational physics wrong. Would you look at it and give me advice?”

The ‘he’ was the Cornell University astrophysicist Carl Sagan, speaking to Kip Thorne, at the close of academic year 1984-85, and the novel in question was, of course, *Contact*.

I’ve typed out the call that started it all verbatim – as related by Kip Thorne in his 1994 book, *Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein’s Outrageous Legacy*, a must-read for anyone interested in the topic.

Of course he would help, Sagan was a friend after all. And also because as he says, ‘It would be interesting Carl is a clever guy. It might even be fun’. The novel’s manuscript soon arrived just as Thorne was leaving on a long journey with his wife and son to see his daughter graduate. ‘The book was fun, but Carl indeed, was in trouble’ because Sagan had his heroine, Eleanor Arroway, plunge into a black hole and travel through hyperspace. Impossible, thought Thorne, Carl’s novel would have to be changed.

Thorne kept thinking and somewhere during the return journey got the idea of having Sagan use wormholes, despite being initially sceptical himself. Pulling out a pen and paper, Kip Thorne left the driving to his wife and son and stared working out the science, fleshing out the ideas and writing out the equations. By the time they’d returned, Thorne had it all worked out and immediately sent Sagan a long letter, with all the documents, almost a ‘bible’ for wormhole travel if you will.

Ideas and suggestions which Sagan accepted with pleasure and incorporated into *Contact*. Sagan acknowledges this in his Author’s Note in the book saying, “Professor Thorne took the trouble to consider the galactic transportation system described herein, generating fifty lines of equations in the relevant gravitational physics.” Kip Thorne in turn says that had it not been for Sagan’s phone call and the challenge to make *Contact* scientifically correct, he’d never have ventured into research on wormholes and time machines.

These equations of Thorne and the galactic transportation system which Thorne suggested didn’t just make *Contact* accurate physics-wise, but also gave thrust to an entirely new area of theoretical research on how wormholes in space could be used for interstellar travel, with the wormhole sequence in *Contact* in itself helping advance the field of theoretical physics.

William A. Hiscock (professor of physics at Montana State University): . . . Wormholes can exist within the classical black hole solutions of the Einstein equations. These wormholes are useless for travel, however, as they collapse before any spaceship (or even a ray of light) could pass through them. In addition, the black holes formed by a collapsing star have no associated wormhole at all.

"Traversable" wormholes exist in wormhole space-times in which the wormhole is held open at least long enough for a signal or object (spaceship) to pass through. Interest in such wormhole solutions in general relativity was stimulated when Michael Morris and Kip Thorne of the California Institute of Technology examined the general properties necessary for a wormhole to remain open. They found that if a wormhole is static and unchanging in time, then it must contain "exotic" matter. Such matter has negative energy density and a large negative pressure (or tension)--larger in magnitude than the energy density. Such matter is called "exotic" because it so little resembles all forms of known matter.

All the forms of matter familiar to physicists and chemists have positive energy density (or, equivalently, positive mass), and pressures or tensions that are always less than the energy density in magnitude. In a stretched rubber band, for example, the density is 10^14, or 100 million million times, greater than the tension. The one possible source of "exotic" matter known to theoretical physics lies in the behavior of certain vacuum states in quantum field theory. This possibility is the focus of most current theoretical research involving wormholes.

Such research has shown that it appears difficult to use quantum effects to open a wormhole much larger than the characteristic length associated with quantum gravity, known as the Planck length (about 10-33 centimeter). If the wormhole were not much larger than this, then not only would it be useless for transporting spaceships, but quantum gravity would be needed to describe the hole.


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