Ancient clues of life traveled to the Moon + Holographic cosmos has its 1st arousal

#1
C C Offline
The Moon May Be Covered With Oxygen Beamed From Earth
https://www.theatlantic.com/science/arch...en/514928/

EXCERPT: [...] Their key finding relied on a special arrangement among the Earth, the moon, and the sun. Periodically, they block one another, which is why we have eclipses. The solar wind streams onto the moon and Earth all the time, but about five days every month, the Earth is in the sun’s way. It’s during this time that more atoms from Earth freely fly to the moon. When Kaguya looked at oxygen ions in April 2008, it was clear the oxygen was coming from the Earth, according to Terada. There was a lot more oxygen than the solar wind typically contains, and Earth was blocking most of the solar particles, so it was easier to see the difference. “The upper atmosphere consists of oxygen ions that are easily picked up by the solar wind and transported to the moon,” Terada says. “We think it is going into the lunar soil, based on the observations of the energy of the oxygen ions. Maybe some portion is implanted on the moon, and some portion is lost into interplanetary space.” This has been happening for billions of years, meaning the first exhalations of life might still exist on the moon. Maybe, the moon is a place we can visit to study what the early Earth was like, billions of years ago...



Substantial evidence of holographic universe
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20...083231.htm

RELEASE: A UK, Canadian and Italian study has provided what researchers believe is the first observational evidence that our universe could be a vast and complex hologram.

Theoretical physicists and astrophysicists, investigating irregularities in the cosmic microwave background (the 'afterglow' of the Big Bang), have found there is substantial evidence supporting a holographic explanation of the universe -- in fact, as much as there is for the traditional explanation of these irregularities using the theory of cosmic inflation.

The researchers, from the University of Southampton (UK), University of Waterloo (Canada), Perimeter Institute (Canada), INFN, Lecce (Italy) and the University of Salento (Italy), have published findings in the journal Physical Review Letters.

A holographic universe, an idea first suggested in the 1990s, is one where all the information, which makes up our 3D 'reality' (plus time) is contained in a 2D surface on its boundaries.

Professor Kostas Skenderis of Mathematical Sciences at the University of Southampton explains: "Imagine that everything you see, feel and hear in three dimensions (and your perception of time) in fact emanates from a flat two-dimensional field. The idea is similar to that of ordinary holograms where a three-dimensional image is encoded in a two-dimensional surface, such as in the hologram on a credit card. However, this time, the entire universe is encoded!"

Although not an example with holographic properties, it could be thought of as rather like watching a 3D film in a cinema. We see the pictures as having height, width and crucially, depth -- when in fact it all originates from a flat 2D screen. The difference, in our 3D universe, is that we can touch objects and the 'projection' is 'real' from our perspective. In recent decades, advances in telescopes and sensing equipment have allowed scientists to detect a vast amount of data hidden in the 'white noise' or microwaves (partly responsible for the random black and white dots you see on an un-tuned TV) left over from the moment the universe was created. Using this information, the team were able to make complex comparisons between networks of features in the data and quantum field theory. They found that some of the simplest quantum field theories could explain nearly all cosmological observations of the early universe.

Professor Skenderis comments: "Holography is a huge leap forward in the way we think about the structure and creation of the universe. Einstein's theory of general relativity explains almost everything large scale in the universe very well, but starts to unravel when examining its origins and mechanisms at quantum level. Scientists have been working for decades to combine Einstein's theory of gravity and quantum theory. Some believe the concept of a holographic universe has the potential to reconcile the two. I hope our research takes us another step towards this."

The scientists now hope their study will open the door to further our understanding of the early universe and explain how space and time emerged.
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#2
Zinjanthropos Offline
Quote:all the information, which makes up our 3D 'reality' (plus time) is contained in a 2D surface on its boundaries.

Not sure what 'on its boundaries' means here. Like a shadow?

Although it has been argued whether it's a 2D object, they say a shadow is a 2D phenomenon of a 3D universe. So instead of holographic, is there a chance the universe could be a 3D phenomenon of a 4D universe?
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#3
C C Offline
(Jan 31, 2017 02:17 PM)Zinjanthropos Wrote:
Quote:all the information, which makes up our 3D 'reality' (plus time) is contained in a 2D surface on its boundaries.

Not sure what 'on its boundaries' means here. Like a shadow?


Granting that the cosmos or spacetime could have such boundary surfaces, it's the latter which could hold the universe's information more compactly (the source for the realization of the observed world science studies). Even before this (in quantum field theory), particles of matter are treated as the excitations of a field rather than literally being classic, corporeal entities.

Determining what model could be applicable for a boundary was a feat in itself for the physicists. It's still arguably a bunch of mathematical hand-waving at this or that select construct which suffices for the task.

Information in the Holographic Universe
https://www.scientificamerican.com/artic...phic-univ/

EXCERPT: [...] This surprising result--that information capacity depends on surface area--has a natural explanation if the holographic principle (proposed by t Hooft and elaborated by Susskind) is true. In the everyday world, a hologram is a special kind of photograph that generates a full three-dimensional image when it is illuminated in the right manner. All the information describing the 3-D scene is encoded into the pattern of light and dark areas on the two-dimensional piece of film, ready to be regenerated. The holographic principle contends that an analogue of this visual magic applies to the full physical description of any system occupying a 3-D region: it proposes that another physical theory defined only on the 2-D boundary of the region completely describes the 3-D physics. If a 3-D system can be fully described by a physical theory operating solely on its 2-D boundary, one would expect the information content of the system not to exceed that of the description on the boundary.

Can we apply the holographic principle to the universe at large? The real universe is a 4-D system: it has volume and extends in time. If the physics of our universe is holographic, there would be an alternative set of physical laws, operating on a 3-D boundary of spacetime somewhere, that would be equivalent to our known 4-D physics. We do not yet know of any such 3-D theory that works in that way. Indeed, what surface should we use as the boundary of the universe? One step toward realizing these ideas is to study models that are simpler than our real universe.

A class of concrete examples of the holographic principle at work involves so-called antide Sitter spacetimes. [...] In 1997 astronomers studying distant supernova explosions concluded that our universe now expands in an accelerated fashion and will probably become increasingly like a de Sitter spacetime in the future. Now, if the repulsive cosmological constant is replaced by an attractive one, de Sitter's solution turns into antide Sitter spacetime, which has equally as much symmetry. More important for the holographic concept, it possesses a boundary, which is located at infinity and is a lot like our everyday spacetime.

Using antide Sitter spacetime, theorists have devised a concrete example of the holographic principle at work: a universe described by superstring theory functioning in an antide Sitter spacetime is completely equivalent to a quantum field theory operating on the boundary of that spacetime. Thus, the full majesty of superstring theory in an antide Sitter universe is painted on the boundary of the universe. [...] Examples of this holographic correspondence are now known for spacetimes with a variety of dimensions.

This result means that two ostensibly very different theories--not even acting in spaces of the same dimension--are equivalent. Creatures living in one of these universes would be incapable of determining if they inhabited a 5-D universe described by string theory or a 4-D one described by a quantum field theory of point particles. (Of course, the structures of their brains might give them an overwhelming commonsense prejudice in favor of one description or another, in just the way that our brains construct an innate perception that our universe has three spatial dimensions; see the illustration on the opposite page.)

Quote:Although it has been argued whether it's a 2D object, they say a shadow is a 2D phenomenon of a 3D universe. So instead of holographic, is there a chance the universe could be a 3D phenomenon of a 4D universe?

In the context of four-dimensionalism ontology, one would be limited to experiencing one's self as a 3D body rather the extended "4D worm" version. Our other "temporal parts" (not present in any particular single "now") would be mistakenly interpreted as a sequence of appearing and disappearing changes rather than part of our enduring being. Likewise with the world.
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#4
Zinjanthropos Offline
(Jan 31, 2017 05:14 PM)C C Wrote:
(Jan 31, 2017 02:17 PM)Zinjanthropos Wrote:
Quote:all the information, which makes up our 3D 'reality' (plus time) is contained in a 2D surface on its boundaries.

Not sure what 'on its boundaries' means here. Like a shadow?


Granting that the cosmos or spacetime could have such boundary surfaces, it's the latter which could hold the universe's information more compactly (the source for the realization of the observed world science studies). Even before this (in quantum field theory), particles of matter are treated as the excitations of a field rather than literally being classic, corporeal entities.

Determining what model could be applicable for a boundary was a feat in itself for the physicists. It's still arguably a bunch of mathematical hand-waving at this or that select construct which suffices for the task.

Could the quantum world represent a boundary of some sort? Let's say between matter as we know it and the actual excited fields.
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#5
C C Offline
Depicting the "boundary" (including the shadow analogy thrown in). Note that [somewhat] recently the holographic principle [finally] achieved a correspondence to the flat spaces of our own universe, not just the toy model of anti-de Sitter space: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20...101633.htm

String Theory: Insight from the Holographic Principle
http://www.dummies.com/education/science...principle/

Ask Ethan: Could Our Universe Be A Hologram?
http://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithab...6ff201732b

The Holographic Principle and M-Theory
http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/research/gr/public/holo/

The Illusory Universe
https://plus.maths.org/content/illusory-universe

(Jan 31, 2017 05:27 PM)Zinjanthropos Wrote: Could the quantum world represent a boundary of some sort? Let's say between matter as we know it and the actual excited fields.

Niels Bohr: "There is no quantum world. There is only an abstract quantum physical description. [...] It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about nature." --Spoken at the Como conference, 1927

That is, scientific realism is actually just a philosophical adjunct rather than something entailed by the work and research. But if reifying the later account of quantum field theory, then those excitations in the field would be part of the "quantum world": Fields As Fundamental ... Quantum Field Theory

Brian Skinner: "[...] oscillations that propagates across the field. These waves are, in fact, the particles of field theory. In other words, when we say that there is a particle in the field, we mean that there is a wave of oscillations propagating across it. These particles (the oscillations of the field) have a number of properties that are probably familiar from the days when you just thought of particles as little points whizzing through empty space. [...] If two particle-waves run into each other, they can scatter off each other in the same way that normal particles do. [...] Finally, the particles of our field clearly exhibit “wave-particle duality” in a way that is easy to see without any philosophical hand-wringing. That is, our particles by definition are waves, and they can do things like interfere destructively with each other or diffract through a double slit."
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#6
Zinjanthropos Offline
CC: I actually hesitated before putting the word 'world' after quantum. Didn't have a substitute. I'll use quantum description from now on.

From CBC this morning:http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/living...-1.3959758

My favorite part of above article: 
Quote:Afshordi said that science is constantly growing and learning. Any theory — including theirs — could be tossed out as more evidence is gathered.

This is what it's all about. I think if you're going to learn something then you have to be willing to look at new evidence and throw out the old.
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#7
Zinjanthropos Offline
Quote:The Moon May Be Covered With Oxygen Beamed From Earth

What about the Earth? Could the seeds of life come from another planet? We're here, remnants of a supernova that played a role in shaping our current solar system. If there was life in that previous solar system then what are the chances that every planet, every chunk of space debris orbiting the Sun has a least a few of those ions or the seeds of life contained within them?
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#8
C C Offline
(Feb 1, 2017 07:37 PM)Zinjanthropos Wrote:
Quote:The Moon May Be Covered With Oxygen Beamed From Earth

What about the Earth? Could the seeds of life come from another planet?

In the context of one panspermia hypothesis pertaining to local sources, for awhile I didn't even understand what the point was of suggesting that life might have arisen on Mars first and then migrated to Earth. That is, why add such a non-parsimonious route when abiogenesis seemed far more likely on Earth? But I gather that there were chemical and other environmental peculiarities on a wet, early Mars that might have not (oddly enough) been present or favorable on ultra-primeval Earth.

Quote:We're here, remnants of a supernova that played a role in shaping our current solar system. If there was life in that previous solar system then what are the chances that every planet, every chunk of space debris orbiting the Sun has a least a few of those ions or the seeds of life contained within them?


A recent opinion is that our solar system emerged from the gasses and heavier element grains cooked-up by AGB type stars which were blown off as their outer layers. Those stars tend to end their days as white dwarfs rather than supernovas. I take it AGB stars would live longer than larger supergiants, but not sure that's still long enough / stable enough in terms of radiation output and avoiding expansion to allow long enough intervals for life to arise (plus a limitation of their origin-stage would be a potential scarcity of heavier element grains to form planets). Amino acids may have formed from those "stardust" precursors in drifting raw material and proto-comets during the course of the solar system's earliest conditions.
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