Vinland Map is definitely a fake, new analysis finds (sham style)

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EXCERPTS: Scholars have questioned the authenticity of a purported 15th-century map housed in Yale University's Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library since it was first unveiled to the public in 1965. About the size of a placemat, the Vinland Map is an intriguing document because, in addition to Africa, Asia, and Europe, the map depicts a section of the North American coastline identified as "Vinlandia Insula" just southwest of Greenland.

This suggested that Norsemen may have been the first Europeans to discover the Americas, well before the first voyage of Christopher Columbus. But evidence that the map is a hoax has been steadily accumulating, particularly over the last few years. And the latest scientific analysis has definitively put an end to the controversy once and for all: the inks used to draw the map are of modern origin.

"The Vinland Map is a fake," said Raymond Clemens, curator of early books and manuscripts at the Beinecke. "There is no reasonable doubt here. This new analysis should put the matter to rest."

The map first came to light in 1957, when a London book dealer named Irving Davis initially offered the Vinland Map—then bound together with a medieval text, Hystoria Tartarorum—to the British Museum [...] The map's existence was kept secret for several years as a handful of scholars examined the artifact in detail, all while writing a book about their findings. There was good reason to be suspicious: while both the map and the Hystoria were dotted with wormholes, those wormholes didn't line up with each other...

[...] But the following year, Davis sold Yale another medieval tome, the Speculum Historiale, which also had wormholes—and those wormholes did line up with the Vinland Map. Clearly, all three books had been bound together into a single volume at some point. Since both the Hystoria and Speculum were genuine, it seemed more likely that the Vinland Map was genuine as well.

[...] This latest chemical analyses by Yale is notable because they are the first complete examination of the entire document's composition of elements, using tools and techniques not available previously. ... The conservators found no sign of iron, sulfur, or copper, which would be typical of a medieval iron-gall ink. As for the Vinland Insula portion of the map, there were high levels of titanium and small amounts of barium, consistent with commercially manufactured white pigments in the 1920s.

[...] So the Vinland Map is most definitely a modern forgery—and probably a deliberate one... The team also examined the Speculum and Hystoria medieval texts. Radiocarbon dating showed those texts dated back to between 1400 and 1460, in keeping with the parchment used to create the Vinland Map. So the forger seems to have used empty pages from a genuine 15th-century manuscript to create the map... (MORE - missing details)

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